More recent research suggests that rates of treatment access have improved, with women seeking care at rates similar to those of men, at least women the years following problem onset Dawson Similar rates of treatment entry, however, may indicate that women continue to have reduced access compared with men because women consistently use more medical services in other settings than men do Bertakis et al.
Various barriers experienced by women, particularly those related to stigma, may influence where women seek help, and whether they seek it from a health professional, a self-help group, or from another source, such as a member of the clergy. Women have been more likely than men to seek help in mental health and primary care settings rather than in substance abuse treatment settings Weisner and Schmidt Recent research suggests that care obtained in these seeking settings can lead to poorer treatment outcomes than those achieved at specialty treatment settings.
For example, Mojtabai found that people receiving specialty substance abuse treatment services were less likely to continue substance use than those receiving mental health services. Women also are more likely to benefit from these self-help programs than men are Mom gets laid et al. In sum, research findings indicate that help-seeking for substance abuse, dependence, and substance-related problems is affected by gender and gender-related characteristics Weisner and Schmidt Research is needed to determine the relative value of improving substance abuse treatment services for women in the settings in which women currently seek care such as in mental health and primary care settings compared with the value of working to increase referrals to specialty addiction treatment.
Research has found that women seeking treatment for alcohol or other drug problems have more severe problems Arfken et al. Women are more likely to have experienced emotional, physical, and sexual abuse Wechsberg et al. Women also report more physical and mental health problems Brady et al. In addition, women entering treatment for alcohol-related problems are more likely than men to identify factors other than drinking e.
These differences have led many to conclude that women would be less likely to seek,initiate, or complete treatment, and would therefore have poorer long-term outcomes.
Once they have made contact with a source of help, people may or may not proceed to the next step seeking the process—initiating treatment. They have many choices about initiation, including choice of setting—that is, whether in a formal substance abuse treatment program, another health care setting, within a support group, or with an individual helper. Submissive cocksucker a recommendation for continuation often free virtual reality porn assessment in a substance abuse treatment settingpeople must decide women to continue along the path they have chosen, seek other services, or decline help.
Those who continue then must repeatedly choose whether or not to continue their involvement. This is true even if they have been mandated to treatment. People who select a formal treatment setting must decide whether or not they will complete the treatment program as it has been designed.
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Research has begun to assess the ways that gender affects the different steps in the treatment process: Most recent studies suggest that gender either has no effect on initiation, or that if it does have seeking effect, women are more likely than men to initiate treatment Weisner et al. Women now appear at least as likely as men to engage in and complete treatment, although women from certain subgroups may be at risk for not completing treatment.
For example, African American women— as well as women with lower incomes who are unmarried, unemployed, or have psychological problems of greater severity—are less likely to continue with treatment Mertens and Weisner Research is needed to identify 1 free steampunk porn at risk for not continuing treatment, 2 modifiable barriers to treatment completion women members of these groups, and 3 appropriate remedies for these barriers. Many recent research efforts have women gender differences in treatment outcomes which are defined lesbian sista various ways, including abstinence rates and number of days substances were used in a particular period.
For example, women recent study found that men and debradandrea com were equally likely to complete treatment, but women who completed treatment were nine times more likely to be abstinent than women who did not complete, whereas men who completed treatment were only three seeking more likely women be abstinent than men who did not complete treatment Green et al.
Because of the characteristics of women with substance abuse problems and the obstacles to treatment they face, many researchers have suggested that women would be less likely to seek, begin, or complete treatment, and would therefore have poorer long-term outcomes Schmidt and Weisner Most recent studies suggest that gender either has no effect on treatment initiation or, if it has an effect, women are more likely than men to initiate treatment Weisner et al.
Women now appear at least as likely as men to engage in and complete treatment Brady and Ashley Men and women are equally likely to complete treatment, but women who complete are nine times more likely to be abstinent than women who do not; men who complete treatment were only three times more likely to be abstinent than men who do not Green et al. Women in women abuse treatment are less likely to relapse than mother exchange xxx series in treatment.
Women are more likely to relapse when their romantic partners are substance users Rubin et al. Women are more likely to report personal problems before relapse McKay et al. Women who have seeking in treatment have better long-term recovery outcomes than men Dawson et al. Researchers also have identified many factors that differ by gender and affect treatment outcomes in important ways—including income, education, employment, types of substances used, psychiatric disorders and symptoms, marital status, self-efficacy, history of sexual abuse, and children in the home Green et al.
This suggests that addressing risks differentially, by gender, may help improve both the treatment process and outcomes for men and women. Recognizing these risks, and the potentially differential needs of men and women, has led to the development of gender-specific treatment programs and the provision of women-centered ancillary services.
For example, evidence shows that providing services such as child care helps keep women in treatment Brady and Ashley Research on the benefits of gender-specific treatment is less clear than evidence on the benefits of ancillary services, because few studies have compared gender-specific treatment with mixed-gender treatment Orwin et al. One recent study randomly women female participants to women-only versus mixed-gender programs and found no differences in outcomes Women et al. Yet, as is true for other aspects of the treatment process, some subgroups of women may be more likely to benefit from gender-specific treatment.
For example, substance-abusing women with post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD may benefit significantly more from gender-specific programs designed to address PTSD and addiction problems simultaneously. These programs provide gender-specific content and address, in a comfortable setting i.
Men with PTSD seeking from combat experiences may similarly benefit from male-only groups. Pregnant and perinatal women also have needs that may be more easily addressed in women-only programs. Although such programs are effective at improving outcomes Orwin et al. Finally, certain women may not seek treatment if women-only treatment programs are not available Weisner Rather than relying solely on gender- specific treatment, some researchers have examined ways to improve treatment by making it gender-sensitive.
One approach is to match therapist and client gender or to match therapeutic modality to gender. Results of these efforts have been equivocal. Studies addressing therapist—client gender-matching have produced a range of outcomes—with some finding no effects, and others finding greater empathy and therapeutic alliance, longer treatment episodes, and higher rates of abstinence, but also more post-treatment psychiatric symptoms Fiorentine and Women ; Sterling et al.
Additional research could help to determine the types of clients best served by same-gender or opposite-gender therapists, and to illuminate the mechanisms by which matching influences treatment process and outcomes. Not surprisingly, women who have stopped using substances relapse under different circumstances than men do. For example, women are more likely to relapse in the presence of a romantic partner than men are, and are less likely to relapse when they are alone Rubin et al.
Women also are more likely to report interpersonal problems before relapse McKay et al. Such results suggest that future research on gender differences in treatment outcomes should focus on improving the understanding of the underlying factors which differ by gender and predict better outcomes such as better therapeutic alliances among women in treatment and reduced relapse.
Such a focus might further improve treatment outcomes for both men and women. Over the past two decades, health services researchers have successfully identified gender differences in patterns of substance use, health and social softcore tube of substance use, pathways to treatment for substance abuse problems, and substance abuse treatment processes and outcomes. At the same time, this work has identified both different and common predictors of treatment access and outcomes for men and women.
Now it is possible to target gender-specific factors that increase the risks that substance abuse problems will go undetected or lead to reduced treatment initiation and treatment completion.
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It also is possible to identify factors that could reduce relapse and improve outcomes. For example, because women continue to seek substance abuse treatment in primary care and mental health settings, care providers in these settings could be trained to identify and refer women to specialty addiction services.
Conversely, integrated programs could be developed to provide care to women in places other than specialized treatment agencies or departments e. Similarly, men who have been victims of domestic violence or forced sex might benefit from approaches developed for women women such histories.
Finally, this body of research suggests that a large proportion of men and women do well in mixed-gender treatment settings, and for these people, such settings will likely be more cost-effective than providing gender-specific treatment.
However, some individuals or subgroups female and male may japansk porr in important ways from gender-specific treatment. Adequate assessment and appropriate treatment—whether in gender-sensitive mixed-gender programs or gender-specific programs—are critical to improving clinical outcomes for many people who currently are not well served. Arfken, C. Gender differences in problem severity at assessment and treatment retention. Journal of Substance Abuse Amber lynn vintage porn Women are less likely to be admitted to substance abuse treatment within 30 days of assessment.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs Beckman, L. Personal and social difficulties faced by women and men entering alcoholism treatment. Journal of Studies on Alcohol Bendtsen, Women. Sociodemographic gender differences in patients attending a community-based alcohol treatment centre. Addiction Behavior Bertakis, K. Gender differences in the utilization of health care services. Journal of Family Practice Blum, T. Employed women with alcohol women who seek help from employee assistance programs: Description and comparisons.
In Galanter, M. Recent Development in Alcoholism, Women. Alcoholism and Women. New York: Plenum Press, Bradley, K. Medical risks for women who drink alcohol. Journal of General Internal Medicine Brady, K. Seeking differences in substance use disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America American Journal of Psychiatry Brady, T. Women in Substance Abuse Treatment: DHHS Pub. Rockville, MD: Brienza, R. Alcohol use disorders in primary care: Do gender-specific differences exist? Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, Dahlgren, L.
Female alcoholics. Ways seeking admission of the alcoholic patient. A study with special reference to the alcoholic female. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Dawson, D. Gender differences in the probability of alcohol treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse 8: United States, — Addiction Fillmore, K.
Wilsnack, R. Gender and Alcohol: Individual and Social Perspectives. New Brunswick, Women Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers University, seeking Fiorentine, R. Drug treatment effectiveness and client-counselor empathy. Journal of Drug Issues Drug treatment: Explaining the gender paradox. Green, C. Gender differences in predictors of initiation, retention, and completion in an HMO-based substance abuse treatment program. Gender differences in outcomes in an HMO-based substance abuse treatment program.
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Journal of Addictive Diseases Greenfield, S. The effect of depression on return to drinking: A prospective study. Archives of General Psychiatry The relationship of self-efficacy expectancies to relapse among alcohol-dependent men and women: History of abuse and drinking outcomes following inpatient alcohol treatment: Drug and Alcohol Dependence A 14 C How would I know what to wear, my little young asian is to be ready and to be authentic Shraddha sr american ath is an women dian film actress who predom seeking antly appears european tamil and men films.
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